The Joe Cell

Posted on 5/21/2008
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Space charge

n.  The excess of electrons or ions in a given volume.

Source: The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language
Welcome to the Joe Cell website. A Joe Cell is a controversial device that's has been claimed to
generate overunity effects by powering a normal internal combustion engine. If these claims are true
and the science behind the Cell can be effectively harnessed, the device could offer the potential to
revolutionize the world in which we live by eliminating the need to consume fossil fuels. Such a clean,
green technology could power your car, your home or just about anything else that requires energy. Joe
Cells are commonly confused with normal electrolytic cells that produce hydrogen and oxygen gas. The
major difference is that a Joe Cell does not have a current running through it when connected to the
engine, so no hydroxy gases are produced. The effects observed in relation to the Joe Cell appear to
be achieved through space charge physics. This website provides information about the Joe Cell and
space charge engine technology. Please refer to the links and reference sections for a more complete
understanding of the concepts presented.

What is a Joe Cell?

A Joe Cell is a device constructed from a series of concentric stainless steel cylinders sealed at the
bottom and top and separated by insulating spacers. The device is filled with pure water. Before the
device can be used, the water in the cell needs to be conditioned. To achieve this, a continuous current
is left flowing through the device for an initial charging period. When the device is installed in a vehicle,
the internal cylinder (cathode) is connected to the negative terminal of the car battery. The device is
then connected to the vacuum port on the vehicle's carburetor by way of an aluminum tube with a small
rubber hose connecting the two. The vacuum from the engine creates a low pressure environment within
the cell.

It has been reported that when used on a normal internal combustion engine, the device delivers
significant power and fuel efficiency gains. Several experimenters have also claimed that they have even
managed to power an engine for short periods with no fuel supplied to the engine. These converted
engines are said to utilize completely different timing to gasoline powered engines. It is also said that the
engines run cooler than when powered by gasoline. Some people have claimed that the Joe Cell
harnesses some type of magical life force energy referred to as Orgone. Others believe that it pulls
energy straight from the very fabric on the universe – the aether. The truth? Well the truth is much more
elusive.

How does it work?

There are many theories about how the Joe Cell may possibly work. But there can only be one correct
one. The following theories are my own and I provided them here in the hope that they will inspire others
to engage in further research of this promising technology. What makes my theories uniquely different
from virtually all others is that they conform to our current understanding of nature.

A Joe Cell is essentially a capacitor. It's similar in many ways to an old-fashioned Leyden jar. It has the
ability to absorb and hold a charge. Unlike a normal capacitor however, it does not release that charge. 
The water inside the cell behaves exactly like moisture stored in a cloud right before a thunderstorm.
Rather than creating a conductive path, a static charge is induced, establishing opposing electric fields
at the cathode and anode. Positive ions form at the negative electrode and negative ions form at the
positive electrode. The strength and intensity of the electric field is directly related to the amount of
charge build-up in the cell. Electrons are known to travel. When a relatively small charge imbalance is
initially induced, a positive feedback loop begins and progressively more and more electrons are pulled
through the water and off surrounding molecules toward the electric field of the anode. The opposing
charges continue to build and build. If a battery is left with its negative terminal connected to the Cell's
cathode, the charge imbalance will be maintained until such time as it is shorted. For testing purposes,
the charge imbalance can be measured through a PH change in the water - a successfully charged cell
making the water slighter more alkaline.

The role of static electricity.

Static electricity is an electrical charge caused by an imbalance of electrons on the surface of a material.
The term static is a misnomer. It does not imply still, but in fact refers to forces exerted by an
unchanging electric field upon charged objects. The presence of surface charge imbalance means that
the objects will exhibit attractive or repulsive forces. Conductive objects only rarely generate charge
imbalance except, for example, when a metal surface is impacted by a non-conductive solid or liquid.
The charge that is transferred during contact electrification is stored on the surface of each object. And
the larger the surface area, the more charge can be stored. The Joe Cell is a type of electrostatic
generator.

Electrostatic generators develop electrostatic charges of opposite sign rendered to divided conductors.
These devices can produce high-voltage electrical output at relatively low electric currents. Electrostatic
generators have been around a long time. The knowledge of static electricity dates back to the earliest
civilizations, but for millennia it remained merely an interesting and mystifying phenomenon. A primitive
form of electrostatic machine was constructed as far back as 1663 by Otto von Guericke, In the latter
part of the 18th Century, Benjamin Franklin, Ewald Jürgen Georg von Kleist, and Pieter van
Musschenbroek (the last two the inventors of the Leyden jar) made several important discoveries
concerning electrostatic machines. Benjamin Franklin used the Earth's magnetic field and atmospheric
electricity in his devices. In 1929, the Van de Graaff generator was developed at MIT. The machine used
a silk ribbon as the charge transport belt. By 1931 a version capable of producing 1,000,000 volts was
described in a patent disclosure. In 1934, Nikola Tesla wrote a Scientific American article, "Possibilities
of Electro-Static Generators" concerning the Van de Graaff generator. Tesla stated, "I believe that when
new types of Van de Graaff generators are developed and sufficiently improved a great future will be
assured to them".

Between 1858 and 1867, Lord Kelvin also developed a water-drop electrostatic generator, which he
called the "water-dropping condenser”. It was sometimes referred to as “Kelvin’s Thunderstorm”. The
device uses falling water drops to generate voltage differences by utilizing the electrostatic induction
occurring between interconnected, oppositely charged systems. Water runs down from the top, with
slightly positively-charged water attracted to the negative ring and slightly negative water attracted to
the positive ring. The charged water flows through the ring and into a container. The water traveling
through the negative ring becomes H30+ and the water travelling through the positive ring becomes
OH-. The charges then build in the ring connected to the container opposite it - attracting even more
charge. This results in a positive feedback loop. When the charge eventually reaches a certain
threshold, a spark will cross the gab between the rings. Lord Kelvin water droppers have been known to
build a 20,000 volt charge with as few as 100 drops of water through each side in less than six seconds.
That’s without any external power source – simply utilising the energy of the falling water drops. As you
can see, electrostatic generators can be made to be very powerful. Now imagine an electrostatic
generator that's unable to discharge and you've got yourself a Joe Cell. The Joe Cell is the perfect
electrostatic generator.

Lord Kelvin's water dropper

How is it possible?

It is has been reported that when clean water is prepared properly in a joe cell, certain specific types
of bubble production result on the surface of the water. This in itself may give a valuable clue as to
the cause of the energy. When these bubbles are ignited, they often create an extremely violent
reaction with an associated sonic boom. It is highly likely that what is occurring here is related to a
principle known as Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics.

However before we discuss Cavity QED, we first need to examine history.  In 1840, Lord Armstrong
observed that when steam escaped from boilers an electrical charge was produced. This
phenomenon was termed steam electricity. Faraday conducted extensive research into the
phenomenon at the time. That was that for about 120 years, then in 1969, interest in steam electricity
was renewed because of explosions caused by the ignition of vapors during the washing of oiler
tankers with steam jets. Steam electricity is supposedly explained by the bubbles nucleated in the
boiling of water droplets, behaving like resonant quantum electrodynamic (QED) cavities. During
bubble growth as the bubble cavity resonance coincides with vacuum ultraviolet frequencies, the
water molecules on the bubble walls dissociate by cavity QED into hydronium H3O+ and hydroxyl OH-
ions. Available hydronium ions are repulsed from the positive charged bubble surface and tend to the
center of the bubble forming a positive charged vapor; whereas, the available hydroxyl ions are
attracted to the bubble surface. Bursting of the bubbles at the surface of the droplet produces
positive charge steam and negative charged droplets. Scientists at the time figured out that the
explosions only occurred when pure water was used in the steam jets. By adding a little olive oil to
the water, they altered the PH and the steam could no longer hold a charge, so the explosions
stopped occurring. In theory, if it’s good enough for blowing up ships, it should be good enough for
running an engine. Steam electrification caused by the separation of hydronium and hydroxyl ions in
bubbles is commonly observed in atmospheric electricity, thundercloud electrification, waterfall
electricity and the Leidenfrost phenomenon.

When two opposing charges build in a Joe Cell, H30+  is produced at the cathode and OH-  is
produced at the anode. Coincidence? Probably not. Because electrons remain trapped within the
static field of the anode, any vapour that is drawn into the engine will have an excess of H+ atoms,
creating a powerful space charge within the cylinder. Add a stream of electrons from the spark plug
and you get a powerful electrically induced discharge. The same type of effect that was blowing up
ships in 1969. While it may be hard for some to comprehend, the Joe Cell appears to power engines
on lightning. Exactly the same powerful energy force you see exhibited by nature during a
thunderstorm. The Joe Cell does not defy any laws of physics. It simply harnesses them with great
efficiency.

In an intense thunderstorm, water molecules divide into H+ and OH- . H+ being lighter, will be picked
up in a low pressure system and float to the top of the cloud. OH-  on the other hand, stays near the
bottom of the cloud, creating the charge separation. It’s the same within a Joe Cell. The vacuum from
the engine pulls the H+ ions upwards while the electrons remain electrostatically held within the cell.
To recreate this effect within the engine, our DC spark needs to discharge while there is no pressure
within cylinder. This is why Joe Cell powered engine require the advance in timing. Firing the spark at
Bottom Dead Centre recreates a low pressure environment similar to that in the upper atmosphere
during a thunderstorm.

Cavity QED is a scientific phenomenon that deals with the behavior of excited atoms within a metallic /
dielectric space. Cavity QED was traditionally viewed as a problem in many industries.  Besides being
responsible for blowing up ships, it has also been linked with exploding gas pipelines and the rapid
destruction of ship propellers. Recently however, it has been put to good use in a number of
applications, the most significant being commercial water purification devices - cavitation based
purification systems are effective in removing a large range of organic and inorganic impurities from
water. It is no coincidence the Joe Cell can also be used as a water purification device.

Cavity QED produces a loud sonic boom because the bubbles are collapsing faster than the speed of
sound. Generally speaking cavitation is implosion on a microscopic level. There are in fact a number
of different forms of cavitation. Some forms of cavitation can actually produce light - a phenomenon
known as sonoluminesence.

Cavitation events can create very hot plasmas. The term plasma refers to a system of charged
particles large enough to behave as one. A plasma can be formed by high temperature, or by
application of an electric field, such as that provided by the coil and spark plugs of the engine . Even
a partially ionized gas in which as little as 1% of the particles are ionized can form the characteristics
of a plasma.

During the cavitation event inside the cylinder, the plasma collapses on itself. This implosion stoke
generating heat in the process. This ball of hot electrical energy superheats the air in the cylinder.
The superheated air expands rapidly driving the piston down. The net result of the process is a large
amount of energy produced, much more than would be possible through burning conventional fossil
fuels. Cavitation helps to explain the advanced timing observed in Joe Cell powered engines.

One of the popular misconceptions about Joe Cells has always been related to the concept of
implosion. A lot of people seem to believe that gases do not implode, therefore what is occurring
within the Joe Cell has to be from some kind of mysterious as yet unidentified form of energy. The
reality is that plasmas, unlike pure gases, can and do implode. They can implode because strictly
speaking they are not a gas. Plasma's are often referred to as the fourth state of matter because they
don't always behave like gases, even though there are similarities. Plasma's implode all the time in
nature and physicists regularly create them in labs. If you do a goggle search for "plasma implosion"
you'll find hundreds of thousands of reference to this phenomenon. A large body of this research
relates to the phenomenon Nuclear Fusion experiments.

A few observations about this technology.

A. Just like a battery, each Joe Cell will have a limit to the number of electrons it can hold. As the cell
approaches this maximum, two things are likely to occur. Either the performance of the vehicle will
gradually diminish or the charge will become so strong that a spark will cross the gap and short the
cell. What this means is that cells have to be regularly discharged. Ultimately, the most effective way
to reliably run a vehicle on Joe Cell technology may be to have two or more cells fitted for the
purposes of redundancy. Who knows, in the future we may have measurement devices and switching
equipment  that could  automate the discharge process and switch between each cell. It goes without
saying that if you installed two cells, you should always ensure that at least one was charged. It would
make sense to mount then on opposite sides of the engine bay, to reduce them interfering with each
other’s magnetic field.

B. For the cell to work correctly the water has to be completely polar. Absolutely pure H2O. The
presence of any minerals such as sodium, potassium, magnesium or silica will reduce the waters
ability to create a charge imbalance. There has been plenty of talk about types of water that can be
used in the Joe Cell. I am firmly of the opinion that the water needs to be free of pollutants and trace
elements. That includes electrolytes The best way to produce this water is by setting up a conditioning
cell to prepare your water by  removing impurities. A conditioning cell is the same as a Joe Cell except
it separate from the vehicle.

C. Because the Joe Cell is creating a cloud like condition on the ground, it makes sense that it could
influence weather conditions. It also suggests that changing weather conditions may affect the
performance of a Joe Cell powered vehicle. If there is a naturally high number of negatively charged
particles already in the atmosphere, the cell may not work properly, resulting in a fall in compression
and a loss of engine power.

D. In early experiments, Joe's Mark 2 Cell was created using Ag pipe and stainless steel plates as
anode and cathode. The cell didn’t work very well, bulging with gas pressure. This seemed to effect
the performance of the cell negatively. Joe figured that the stainless steel cylinder design was more
robust and that cell pressure reduced performance. As a result of these experiments, maintaining a
vacuum within the cell is seen as an important part of optimising cell performance.

E. The choice of spacers between the cell tubes is of vital importance to cell performance. There are
many substances that will insulate an electric charge, however there are very few that will not carry a
static charge. Nylon is an example. It will insulate but it’s also great for carrying static.  The very best
spacer material will be completely inert, non-conductive and anti-static.

F. The Joe Cell can store charge even when disconnected from its charging circuit, however, it is
more likely to hold a charge when a small battery is permanently connected at the negative cathode
only. This will keep the water polarized, and prevent the cell shorting itself.

G. Electrons can travel easily. As a charge builds within the cell, a spark will try to cross the gap from
the engine and short the cell. This is the reason a rubber tube must be used to separate the carby
from the cell. This should be a minimum of 13 cm in length but can be longer.

H. Joe Cells require Austentic stainless steel in their design. Austentic stainless steels are non-
magnetic. Even slight magnetism affects the charge holding capacity of the cell. When nickel is added
to stainless steel in sufficient amounts the crystal structure changes to "austentite". The basic
composition of Austentic stainless steels is 18% chromium and 8% nickel. This enhances their
corrosion resistance and modifies the structure from ferritic to Austentic. Austentic grades are the
most commonly used stainless steels accounting for more than 70% of production (type 304 is the
most commonly specified grade by far). They are not hardenable by heat treatment. Super Austentic
grades have enhanced pitting and crevice corrosion resistance compared with the ordinary Austentic
or duplex types. This is due to the further additions of chromium, molybdenum and nitrogen to these
grades. Stainless steels with an L on the end of their grade, have a low carbon content. These are
the preferred grades. i.e. 316L. 904L grade stainless is a super Austentic grade with less than 50%
iron content. It also usually contains about 23% Chromium, 23 % Nickel and, 4-5% Molybdenum. It is
designed for use in highly corrosive environments and it is the least magnetic of all stainless steels. 
904L is likely to be the most effective stainless choice for use in Joe Cell manufacture. It is however
the most expensive. Mass production will eventually bring the costs down significantly. Seamless
tubing is also the preferred option as wields can induce magnetism. There is also another high quality
stainless steel known as 6% Molybdenum. It is very similar to 904L but as the name suggests, it has a
higher Molybdenum content which makes it less corrosive.

I. The use of high performance spark plugs, distributor and coil may significantly improve the
performance of a Joe Cell powered engine.

J. The charge state within the cell can be affected by electromagnetic interference from other
electrical devices and power sources. This interference can be minimized by using insulating material 
to prevent shorting. Wrapping the Cell in Burlap (Hessian) and placing it in a plastic bucket, held in
place with blocks of wood is recommended.

K. Joe Cells are very easy to short, particularly by touching them. This is possibly the major reason
experimenters cannot get their cells to work. Every time they touch them, you act as an earth and
short the cell. Once a cell is installed in a vehicle and charged it should not be touched. Particularly if
any part of your body is also touching any other part of the vehicle or ground.  Use rubber gloves to
prevent accidental discharge.

L. The Cells are reported to function only when a strong vacuum is created within the cell. For this
reason, adding a pressure gauge is recommended. For the Cell to function properly, around 15 psi of
vacuum will be required.

M. The timing of the spark needs to be advanced over that of a normal engine. Sometimes as far as 9
degrees.
What about the other theories?

Well I have considered them all and at this point it’s worth mentioning Ockham’s razor. This guiding
principle in developing scientific ideas insists that you should prefer the simplest explanation to fit the
facts. And all the facts point to the static explanation being the most likely. However there are other
theories that are worth entertaining. I’ll deal with the most unlikely first.

Could it be some kind of life force energy?

Not likely. There are precious little facts to support this idea. Actually there are no facts. One of the
reasons Joe Cell technology has progressed so slowly over the past 10 years is because people with
no real knowledge of the underlying processes have been inventing unscientific answers in an
attempt to describe something they do not understand. This process is no different from early
civilizations that invented a new god for every natural process they could not explain. Droughts were
seen as the work of the Sun God. Floods the work of the water god. Societies created answers that
worked within their framework of understanding, but had no real factual basis. And this is exactly what
has been occurring with the Joe Cell. Because it looks like magic, people think it must BE magic. So
they elevate it from the natural to the spiritual. It is highly unlikely that the Joe Cells harnesses any
kind of life force energy.

What about energy from the vacuum?

I have considered the possibility that the Joe Cell could  be tapping energy from the vacuum -
sometimes referred to as zero point energy. There have been many great scientists who have
postulated the presence of an aether. Maxwell being one of the first. Tesla also believed that a type of
radiant energy could be extracted from space and that one day this energy would power all things. If
there is energy being produced by the Joe Cell that cannot be explained mathematically, then that
energy is also likely to be the same energy observed in lightning plasmas as a result of Cavity QED.
There have been a large number of scientists who have proposed that high implosion energy density
can tap Zero Point Energy. But arriving at this point still requires an initial space charge, so any
aether or ZPE theory really becomes an extension of our primary static theory. One would have to be
ignorant to completely discount this possibility.

Space charge connections.

Historically there have been a number of individuals who have claimed to run engines using hydrogen
gas or some kind of electrolytically produced gas vapour. Often high voltage or pulsed DC is used in
the process. Some of these methods appear to produce very little gas but can still apparently run an
engine effectively. These individuals include the likes of Stanley Meyer (USA), Herman Anderson
(USA), Daniel Dingle (Philippines), Gianni Dotto (USA) and most recently Peter Lowrie (NZ). Another
obvious crossover technology is the GEET fuel processor developed by Peter Pantone. In the case of
the GEET fuel processor, the inventor has actually identified  the generation of a plasma as the basis
for the development of the motor's energy. It is entirely possible that what all these designs have in
common is an ionization process leading to a space charge imbalance within the cylinders. Because a
small amount of hydrogen is also produced, it appears as if the vehicle is running efficiently on
hydrogen when most of the power is actually caused by static electricity.

The final word.

The Joe Cell is a device that appears to manipulate the natural balance between protons and
electrons. By creating a charge imbalance within the cylinder, it can generate a powerful plasma that
in turn creates heat and compression/implosion. Space charge engine technology has the potential to
change our understanding of energy. Like any early stage technologies, it is likely to have its
problems. Joe Cells are reportedly difficult to build correctly and are as unreliable as hell - prone to
dying for no apparent reason. But as more and more focus is directed towards the science behind the
device, these problems are likely to be overcome. Space charge engine technology may turn out to
be one of the most important discoveries of the past 100 years. Important because there are so few
options available to us that can prevent  total environmental catastrophe. With access to abundant,
cheap and clean power, the world will be transformed. Oceans could be converted to freshwater,
deserts transformed into forests. We would enter a period of global prosperity like nothing that has
ever been experienced before. Space charge engine technology may just be our future.



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